Understand what numbers are and how to read them. Know a large number of sight words simply by seeing them. These should be memorised and the child shouldn't be having any difficulty sounding out these words or reading them. They should also be able to form sentences which contain approximately 7-12 words with confidence. The child should also be able to identify primary and secondary colours as well as popular animals.
Assist in a child's pronunciation of words, this includes sounding out words phonetically with emphasis on syllables and breaking down words. Begin writing - even if their spelling is wrong, it should be phonetically legible.
At the beginning of learning with this age range, students will begin by recalling numbers 1-10 and eventually 10-20+. They will also be recalling both primary and secondary colors. The alphabet will be gone over. Any student that doesn't know these basics will be taught in their introductory lessons.
Once their introductory lessons have been completed, students will learn 5-10 new words per day and begin writing basic sentences. At this point, the child should be able to identify and point out most of the things they are surrounded by. As well as this the child should also be able to tell the time in English. Pick an animal and do some research and write 5 facts/sentences about that animal - just to show that they can form a sentence and retain information. They will also practice writing what they did on the weekend. On the weekend I as well as the basic usage of capital letters and full stops.
Beginner Reader Books: Sight Words Level 1 by Helen Gunson, Mr McGee by Pamela Allen, Dr Seuss books (Dr. Suess's Beginner Book Collection (Box Set) What Pet Should I Get etc), Clifford the Big Red Dog (series) by Norman Bridwell, Ada Twist, Scientist by Andrea Beaty, The Magic School Bus by Joanna Cole. Refer to A List of Books for ESL Students for more reading material.
How to tell the time, identify objects, their surroundings etc. As well as answer basic questions about themselves i.e. - how they are feeling, how old they are, what their favourite colour is etc. They should know approximately 500-1500 words which they would be using frequently in rotation. (Everything from the previous age range)
Learn the months, days of the week and seasons of the year all in chronological order and be able to identify them. (eg. - Monday to Friday are weekdays, Saturday and Sunday are the weekend. What months are in each season and the difference between each season, as well as what occurs in them. The child should be able to describe the weather in each season). The child at this age would be taught more descriptive terms such as naming words (nouns), describing words (adjectives) and doing words (verbs).
Write what they did on the weekend. Students should practice using capital letters and periods, commas and more detailed descriptive sentences. They will also be tested on their understanding of things they've read and information they've been told to see how well they retain and process it.
The Magic School Bus by Joanna Cole, Ada Twist, Scientist by Andrea Beaty, Charlotte's Web by E. B. White. Refer to A List of Books for ESL Students for more reading material.
At this point a child should be able to tell and write an extremely basic story, with frequent spelling errors. As well this they should be able to understand 3-4 commands/sentences in a row and follow through with the required action. (Everything from the previous age ranges.)
Reading is a main objective at this age as students should begin to level up on their reading material much faster. Students should be learning how to speak confidently about their hobbies and interests.
Teachers and Students will spend a large portion of time focusing on the confidence that is required to hold a conversation and write a story. Each day students will have a different speaking and/or writing activity, topics may include, art, sport, travel, countries, food, family, planets etc. Students will be encouraged to occasionally bring an item in relation to one of these topics to speak about during their tutoring session. These topics will also be covered in reading and comprehension tasks during class. Some homework may also be assigned in order to encourage independent learning. Students are encouraged to bring any questions they may have to their next lesson.
Junie B Jones (series) by Barbara Park, Roald Dahl books (James and the Giant Peach? The Witches Mathilda Charlie and the Chocolate Factory The BFG etc.). Refer to A List of Books for ESL Students for more reading material.
By this point, students should be able to confidently speak about a topic of interest to them or tell a story. They should be able to point out any obvious mistakes in their writing fix them. They should also be able to understand the appropriate use of full stops, commas, apostrophes, quotation marks, question marks and exclamation points. (Everything from the previous age ranges).
During this age range students will learn how to identify root words and affixes context clues. They will also begin to learn simple past, present and future tenses and plural terms.
Students will learn how to identify the meaning of a word by looking at its root as well as when and how to use it with the correct prefix and suffix. These will predominantly be basic terms most students should simply be able to guess if they already know the base word. Children will here will be taught the basics of tense through the method of recalling and predicting future actions. This will be done through writing stories and researching past events and writing about them. This will provide students with all the more opportunity to recall and understand information they have been taught before and continue to learn. Worksheets as homework will also become more frequent in this phase of learning as students will need the repetition to retain information. Students will also learn how to summarise information in their own words by writing recounting and doing presentations.
The Adventure of Captain Underpants by Dav Pilkey, Diary of a Wimpy Kid (series) by Jeff Kinney. Refer to A List of Books for ESL Students for more reading material.
They should also be able to identify questions, statements and exclamations. (Everything from the previous age ranges).
The learning objective at this stage is to get students to be able to identify different stages of plot development. Previously students simply would've been able to identify the beginning middle and end now they should be able to divide this into more detail as introduction conflict and resolution They will also be able to identify the difference between cause and effect, facts and opinions, main ideas and supporting details. Alongside this students will be developing strategies for self-assessment and critical thinking.
Teachers will spend a large portion of time working one on one with the student to develop their reading and writing skills. Asking students (and having them ask in return) how what and why questions will be frequently used to prompt them to explain things in further detail in both their speaking, reading and writing abilities. Cause and effect, facts and opinions, main ideas and supporting details will also be covered through the student's own writing. They will have to develop their own stories where they include contrasting elements of cause and effect etc. This will sometimes require explanation to the teacher is the writing is not clear. This will also be covered in comprehension tasks as students will be required to point out and explain information after reading passages of text.
Students will also begin to look at different forms of basic testing - predominantly multiple choice. The teacher will present them with a series of questions towards the end of each lesson where with approximately 3-5 multiple choice answer possibilities. Some answers will be very clearly wrong whilst others will be a bit harder to differentiate, through this testing students will develop a method of elimination where they cancel out answers slowly providing their own opinions and reasoning before coming to the correct answer. Throughout this whole process students will be asked to explain their train of thought to show how they came to their conclusion.
The Adventure of Captain Underpants by Dav Pilkey, Diary of a Wimpy Kid (series) by Jeff Kinney, The Baby-Sitters Club (series) by Ann M. Martin,The Chronicles of Narnia (series) by C.S. Lewis. Refer to A List of Books for ESL Students for more reading material.
By this age range a student should be able to confidently write a well flowing paragraph of at least 5 strong sentences with the correct punctuation and capitalisation. They should also be capable of identifying different writing styles (narrative, expository, persuasive, and descriptive etc.) as well as being able to identify synonyms and antonyms. Their vocabulary should now consist of approximately 12,000 words. (Everything from the previous age ranges).
We will dwell even deeper into story writing, expanding from introduction conflict and resolution to background rising action climax falling action and resolution as this will become somewhat of a base for essay writing in the future. Students will also be prompted to be able to explain character decisions and meanings of their actions. They will become self-reliant in their writing and be able to identify the process of writing. They will also be able to thoroughly proofread and edit any errors within their own work.
Similarly to the previous age range, students will spend much of their time writing stories and explaining their choices to do so. When writing stories, students will be creating conflict, but also learning how to resolve it. Teachers will explain the importance of this to students as they learn the importance of creating and resolving conflict in story writing, essay writing and how it can be used in Business English. This will be taught as students will begin to read assigned texts which they will have to progressively break down with the help of a teacher.
The Baby-Sitters Club?(series) by Ann M. Martin,The Chronicles of Narnia?(series) by C.S. Lewis, Goosebumps?(series) by R.L. Stine, Harry Potter?(series) by J.K. Rowling.
By this age a student should have developed an appreciation for reading and be able to analyse plot structure, character development, underlying meanings, conflict, themes, motifs, metaphors and descriptive language. They should also be able to summarise and explain their own opinions in regards to the text. (Everything from the previous age ranges).
Our learning objective for this age range is to begin critical thinking in response to text and the world around us.
Students will begin essay writing in a basic T.E.E.L. structure. This style of writing will consist of an introduction (50-75 words), three body paragraphs (150-300 words each) and a conclusion (50-75 words). In their writing, students should be able to begin to establish their own opinions, predictions and conclusions about the text they are studying. Prior to writing, students will be learning how to pull concepts, paraphrases, and summaries from the text they're reading. They'll be taught how to pull apart their writing before learning how to piece it all together.
Harry Potter (series) by J.K. Rowling, I'm Being Stalked By A Moonshadow by Doug MacLeod, The Curious Case of the Dog in the Night-Time by Mark Haddon. Refer to A List of Books for ESL Students for more reading material.
They should be able to effectively write a well structured but basic essay. Students should be able to read, view, interpret, evaluate and perform a range of spoken and written texts. (Everything from the previous age ranges).
In this age range the learning objective becomes more of what students have learnt in the past but at a higher level. By the end of this age range pupils should be able to show that they can: use discussion as a form of learning, elaborate and clearly explain their understanding in ideas with reasoning, logic and evidence. They should also be proficient in speaking and listening. As well as making presentations where they are capable of demonstrating and explaining their ideas in front of a reasonably sized group of people.
Students will be assigned reading material which they will be required to read over a period of weeks. During each lesson 1-3 chapters of text will be analysed. Each chapter will be written about in terms of themes and characters with students being required to break down their findings and explain their reasoning for their choices.
I'm Being Stalked By A Moonshadow by Doug MacLeod, The Curious Case of the Dog in the Night-Time by Mark Haddon, In Flanders Fields (poem) by John McCrae, Runner by Robert Newton. Refer to A List of Books for ESL Students for more reading material.
By this age range students should be fully capable of pulling ideas and themes from written texts. As well as this they should be able to - with full confidence - read a novel aloud as well as hold a solid conversation with an adult such as a parent or teacher. (Everything from the previous age ranges).
Our learning objective for this age is to get students to understand the meanings of as well as how to use things such as cliches, idioms, metaphors and similes. During this same year students shall also be taught to use these writing techniques in general conversation, as native English speakers use them. They will also begin to learn more frequently about understanding how native English speakers construct their sentences and words.
Lessons will mostly consist of encouraging students to be more critical thinkers as they will be taught what cliches, idioms, metaphors and similes are before they are required to pull them from this year's texts. They will have to explain the difference between them and how to identify them as well as when it is appropriate to use them. Students will also be having more regular fast paced conversations in class where they are given less time to think about their responses, rather they will simply be required to speak on the spot. They will also be taught and tested on how native English speakers constructed through listening to things such as snippets of radio and television shows. Their teachers may also act out a conversation they are having with another local and ask that the students break down the topic and any foreign words. This may be a challenge to begin with however it is a vital part of growth when it comes to thinking and acting as a native English speaker would. It will also help students to understand and be able to pronounce different types of English speaking accents.
In Flanders Fields (poem) by John McCrae, Runner by Robert Newton, The Raven (poem) by Edgar Allen Poe, Wonder by Raquel Jaramillo, Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare. Refer to A List of Books for ESL Students for more reading material.
By this age students should be confident in all forms of speaking, reading and writing. They should be able to identify a large variety of written texts all of which they should be able to pull the main ideas, themes, motifs, etc. When doing so the student should be able to identify why they were put in the text in the first place. When identifying why they were put there, a student should be able to successfully think like the author (a native speaker) and explain their reasoning behind their choices. They should also be able to think like a native when it comes to reading articles out of print such as newspapers and magazines in order to understand the world around them. When speaking to strangers they should also be able to hold a decent conversation and provide things like directions and the weather forecast without any trouble. As well as all of this they should be confident in talking about themselves, expressing concerns and opinions. (Everything from the previous age ranges).
In this age range students will spend the vast majority of their time studying everything they know and have learnt over the years. They will be revising and placing together all of their knowledge to prepare for exams.
During this age range teachers will most commonly assist in preparing students for exams, there will continue to be new material that the students are studying however they will most commonly be repeating the same techniques and methods they've learnt in the past. The texts will only become more complex to understand but the methods in which they are dissected and studied will remain the same as the past 3 years. Teachers in these final years will become more of a study companion and tutor rather than a teacher as the students will finally have the confidence to work on their own and the teacher will simply assist where they are struggling. Students may also find that they are seeing their teachers more regularly as they will find themselves seeking out problems on their own and are having issues resolving them. In comparison to in the past when teachers would seek out problems for students to solve on their own, the roles are now reversed as the students by this point will be able to identify their own weak spots and see where they require further assistance in study.
Macbeth by William Shakespeare, Animal Farm by George Orwell, Don Quixote by Miguel de Cervantes, Hamlet by William Shakespeare. Refer to A List of Books for ESL Students for more reading material.
By this age students should practically be on the verge of being a native speaker. Students should be able to form a coherent and persuasive essay which should be well flowing and easy to follow. (Everything from the previous age ranges).
During this age range students will be focusing their learning on passing their examinations and being accepted into university.
Much like the ages of 16 to 17 students will continue to study more complex texts. Students will be required to write 1-3 essays per week depending on how motivated they are to succeed in their exams. Practice verbal examinations will also take place more frequently in classes. Students will be given random topics of conversation which they will have to be able to speak about on the spot without much, if any preparation. Students will also be shown a random image during classes - much like what they did between the ages of 12 to 15 - and will have to speak about it, creating a story on the spot. This is a vital part of their learning as it will allow students to think and behave as a native English speaker would as they do not stop to think about something for a few minutes before they speak.
Animal Farm by George Orwell, Don Quixote by Miguel de Cervantes, Hamlet by William Shakespeare, Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen, Wuthering Heights by Emily Bront Refer to A List of Books for ESL Students for more reading material.
By this age, students should be able to speak, read, write and understand English at a fluent level. They should be coherent in their knowledge and understanding of the English language. They should be able to undertake both written and verbal examinations of a high standard without any major problems. (Everything from the previous age ranges).
The learning objective for this age range is to help students develop the correct method of speaking and understanding English at a university/college and professional level.
In this age range students will learn the correct way to write university level essays, this includes referencing styles as well as formal emails. They will also learn the correct way to address people in accordance to their level of education, profession or specific clientele. This level of education will be more about professional development and Business English.
Speak Business English like an American by Amy Gillete, How To Write Effective Business English by Fiona Talbot, Cambridge Business English Dictionary.
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